Aviation hotels and large data centers offer the telecommunications and network industries convenient locations for interconnecting with other telecommunications companies at a physical level in a neutral facility that offers a high density of available carriers. As telecommunications around the world continue the movement towards packet networks and services, Internet protocol exchanges and interconnections will add even more value to the global telecommunications community.
Large networks require compensation from smaller networks and content providers for the use of their infrastructure, while the Internet community generally requires free access (network neutrality) to the infrastructure used or contracted from the large facility-based networks. Carrier hotels are important to the survival of smaller businesses in the hope of competing with established public utilities, including AT&T, Verizon and BellSouth.
Legislation such as HR 5252, without special network neutrality protection, will drive the second level of network providers to develop parallel infrastructure using wireless and physical cable, in addition to stronger peering conditions that allow circumvention of large network infrastructure. Aviation hotels support stronger peering relationships between smaller networks and content providers by allowing a neutral interconnection environment, bypassing large wholesale network infrastructure or transit.
Internet Tiered Hierarchy
For the past 15 years, the Internet has been divided into three major levels:
• Level 1 – the background carrier. These Tier 1 carriers are facility-based and carry the entire Internet routing table. ISPs that are generally recognized as Tier 1 & # 39; s include Verizon (formerly UUNET / MCI Internet), Sprint, AT&T, and Cable & Wireless.
• Level 2 – regional and second level Internet networks. Also usually facility based but still dependent on one of the Tier 1 & # 39; s for some routing and transit. This includes cable TV networks, CLECs and international carriers such as France Telecom Open Transit and Level 3.
• Level 3 – Access networks and content service provider networks.
Peering is a concept that allows networks to have reciprocal agreements that allow the transfer of traffic directly between their networks without having to use a higher-level network for this transit. Paid peering is how Tier 2 and Tier 1 networks charge smaller networks to access their backbone or give subscribers to their networks access to the rest of the world internet.
Network neutrality assumes that users will be able to control what type of content or applications they produce or access, regardless of quality or service. Whether you pay for a dedicated port with everything you can eat or if you pay for a utility-based billing model, all you pay for is the ability to send and receive packages at the rate agreed in your contract with a " upstream "Tier 2 or Tier 1 network provider.
Current legislation (HR5252) gives Tier 2 and Tier 1 carriers much more control over the produced content and applications used by both Tier 3 networks and content / application providers, but also limits how end users may be able to use network applications. One common example is voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP. Tier 1 and Tier 2 networks claim that VoIP requires higher quality of service, and therefore places unreasonable demands on the backbone network. They also dispute content service providers, such as Google and Yahoo, are able to provide their content to users at no charge or charge to backbone network providers used as transit networks.
Initial verbiage in HR5252 included discussion of network neutrality. Network neutrality is the principle that "Internet users should have control over the content they see and what applications they use on the Internet." Since the beginning, the Internet has operated under the principle of network service provider neutrality, promoted technical innovations, the development of online industries and the creation of a truly global community and marketplace.
The Internet was built with an idea of openness that was only occasionally challenged by restrictive governments who felt it was necessary to restrict the freedom of citizens to access and view open information. With the IPv6 protocol, governments will continue to find Internet control a difficult proposition as IPSEC will further leverage their ability to restrict or capture data.
Carrier hotels and network neutrality support
Carrier hotels are by nature property management. Carrier hotels make money by renting or licensing footprints, uninterrupted power, cooling and interconnections. The more interconnections and networks found in a property, the more important it became the property of the telecommunications and network provider community. The rationale is pretty simple. If you are in a carrier, you can generally connect to another network or carrier using a local intersection, and in some cases just a "jumper" cable. If you are in a data center that is geographically separate from a major carrier (such as One Wilshire, 60 Hudson, The Westin Building or Telehouse), or you are a tenant in a data center operated by an existing carrier, You pay for the cost network providers and carriers will be significantly higher.
A carrier such as One Wilshire can have more than 300 carriers and service providers present as tenants in a single building. Most of these tenants will have a direct presence in a building-driven meeting room, giving all carriers easy access to each other as everyone is nearby.
The Aviation Hotel is a place where Tier 3 and Tier 2 networks as well as content providers and applications can connect directly. This allows these networks to "peer" without the need to send traffic through a transit or large Tier 2/1 carrier. In many cases, the smaller providers and content or application providers can peer as equals without money passing hands between networks. This is important in cases where a content provider may send a huge amount of traffic to users of a small network. Both the content provider and the Tier 3 network are likely to have paid upstream network peering schemes, resulting in both companies and their users paying for basically the same traffic.
Carrier hotels may also offer additional Tier 2 and Tier 3 networking tools or settings. Both One Wilshire and 60 Hudson operate a packet exchange of tools so that packet networks (internet and internet content / applications) can be connected through an internet exchange. The Internet exchange, such as One Wilshire & # 39; s Any2 Exchange, allows network and content providers to connect to the exchange with a single high-speed connection and then connect to any or all other exchange participants without the need for physical cabling or port usage.
ByPass and Packet Exchange
The Internet is a rich environment that supports the constant development of advanced technologies, products and communication enabled services. Three areas that have experienced rapid development as well as growth are Voice (Voice) via the Internet, interactive entertainment, such as multi-user gaming and rich media on demand (video). All three require high-end end users access, and all three have the potential to generate large amounts of network traffic.
In our broadband access world, most end users are connected to their networks with high capacity lines, whether ADSL, Internet via CATV lines or wireless. For the access network, getting large amounts of traffic to end users is usually not a big problem, rather paying too much traffic or higher bandwidth ports can be a factor due to the high operating costs of an upstream network provider in a paid peering ratio.
To ensure a positive end-user experience, which is clearly a necessity for customer inventory, the access network and content provider need to ensure that their users do not have "bottlenecks" or traffic disruption points between neither interactive users nor content distribution endpoints.
The packages flow
The Internet was originally designed as a very viable network, so packets of information can route around blocks and flaws in any network. This ability to work around blockages and failure points has an eerie parallel in the dynamics of business relationships associated with the Internet.
Each time an architecture or business model becomes too restrictive, an alternative model develops or emerges. The Internet community naturally wants neutrality and has historically found ways to circumvent restrictive networks and legal barriers, allowing users to freely communicate with each other, regardless of the controls placed on network architecture, politics, security and monitoring.
Like internet packages, the Internet community will find ways around Level 1 and facility-based carriers trying to restrict or restrict applications and services on the public Internet.
VoIP and the end of telephone networks
VoIP is closely monitored by the government, telecom industry and most importantly for the end user. Pricing, call quality and ease of use are all important issues, as are future regulation and security implications of sending calls through a packet network.
VoIP not only has problems with physical network performance, but also has to look ahead to the long-term issue of future convergence or integration of video, conferencing, application sharing and network presence. Today, the world of the world operates on a numbering system called E.164. E.164 is the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU) recommendation for international and local telephone numbering systems. With VoIP, the E.164 numbering plan is gradually replaced by network presence indicators that simply "proxy" your desired identity on either a telephone or packet network and announce your availability for either interactive or non-interactive communication.
Today, a user's instant messaging identity is the best example of an active network presence indicator, but even IM engines quickly add interactive voice modules to their interface. This voice module can either be directly connected to the IM interface or be "proxyed" to the interface through a presence directory.
The closest term "proxy" service is called ENUM. ENUM registers translate between E.164 phone numbers and network IP addresses or identities. Within a neutral packet exchange, ENUM records allow non-wholesale or backbone VoIP operators to query a database of other VoIP phone numbers and pass VoIP calls to other networks IP <-> IP that bypasses all traditional transit telephone operators when they end or end "calls." If VoIP carriers have peering agreements in place, this significantly reduces the amount that smaller VoIP carriers have to pay to telephone carrier providers when setting up or terminating telephone traffic, allowing carriers to bypass complete telephone networks to end-to-end VoIP diverts.
As all networks continue their migration to packet telephony, even ENUM will gradually become obsolete. However, as a tool available within a neutral package exchange, it can help many smaller networks save enough on operating expenses to survive for a much longer period of time than otherwise.
Caching companies have been around for several years, with the most prominent (Akamai) having a presence in almost every major data center. The reason is simple – place your content as close to the user as possible and give the user the best experience. Carrier hotels that support package exchange fully support the distribution of content. A company like Limelight, which distributes large volumes of media on demand, finds a carrier attractive as it allows the media to bypass the need for an intermediate or transit network. The performance of an end user is then completely dependent on the performance of the access network.
If net neutrality is not protected under HR5252, this problem becomes more acute. Both access networks and content owners incur extra quality of service or audio fees when delivering applications and high bandwidth content – such as VOD or streaming media. In a package exchange, the content provider is able to directly connect to all participants in the exchange, and in most cases deliver content directly through the exchange without paid peering.
Internet service provider Peering
The final advantage that an airline hotel, especially an airline hotel that operates a neutral internet or package exchange can offer, is to look among their ISPs. In some cases, the dynamics of the Internet may justify sending a majority of traffic through a single Tier 2 or Tier 1 network provider. You can enjoy the best possible performance at the best possible price. As the ISP continues to grow, the burden of paying transit or usage fees to an upstream ISP may justify direct peering relationships.
The aviation hotel has easy space for both physical interconnections as well as packing peering. The pack exchange is best if you want peering among a large number of peers and the traffic volume is not too high. As traffic to a single network increases, it is possible to switch to alternate traffic to a dedicated physical intersection.
Carrier hotels and large neutral data centers are convenient locations for all levels of Internet networks, content providers and application providers. Given concerns about the absence of effective neutrality counts within HR 5252, many Tier 2, Tier 3 and content / application providers are looking for carriers and neutral Internet exchanges to help bypass Tier 1 transit. Bypassing gives smaller networks and content providers better network and application performance among participating networks, as well as reduced operating expenses incurred through usage-based billing or port fees.